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2018 Stage2 T2 - HEAT (Physical World)

SYNOPSIS

This page provides detailed (but summarised) references, background information and practical examples that teachers should review before programming/teaching Heat for Stage 2. This includes…

  • NESA Syllabus summaries and links.
  • Links and information about some core misconceptions about heat.
  • How to access and use a diagnostic HEAT QUIZ.
  • Using formative assessment to make reporting easier and for improved learning outcomes.
  • Some short videos explaining the main concepts about heat (suitable for students).
  • Lots of information and examples related to teaching content (for both teachers & students).
  • Lots of information and examples of practical classroom activities for students.

NESA 2018 SCIENCE: OUTCOMES

A STUDENT (Read more...)

NESA 2018 SCIENCE: CONTENT

HEAT (Read more...)


TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION

Formative Assessment

While teaching we want to collect evidence and data as to how the students are understanding the material. We then use that evidence to form or change what we do next. This process is commonly referred to as Formative Assessment.

Formative assessment can take many shapes, including:

  • observations
  • checks for understanding
  • asking questions (especially 'why' questions)
  • quizzes.

Formative assessment is NOT designed to obtain a score for entry into a grade-book.

While teaching we want to collect evidence and data as to how the students are understanding the material. We then use that evidence to form or change what we do next.

A well recognised, research-based diagnostic tool (QUIZ) is available to aid formative assessment. At the top of each QUIZ, you will see something like:

THIS IS A QUIZ - IT IS NOT A TEST
It is to help you find & understand correct answers, not mark you down for incorrect answers!

As a bonus, the evidence from 'pre' versus 'post' quiz scores provides an easy way for teachers to gain authentic comments for student reports.

To get started, all teachers and students should first complete the HEAT QUIZ - before commencing any teaching/learning activities.


UNDERSTANDING HEAT

QUIZ: Please complete the on-line THE HEAT QUIZ now.

This quiz should be completed on commencement of the course and may be completed one or more times for pre and post-test use.

Getting the 'correct' answers is unimportant - It is only a diagnostic tool to test for understanding.

INTRODUCTION:

  • All activities described here have been trialled in Australian primary schools.

This unit ( Heat - ST2 2018) is designed to teach the core principals and to ensure students gain an understanding of heat at the deepest level. It is not an easy topic and it is not easy to teach.

Taking the harder path is justified by the belief that it is better to teach something that is difficult and correct than something that is easier but incorrect.

  • NOTE: Classroom activities may be recorded and some content published (requires: 'permission to publish' approval).


NOTE: Students have difficulty distinguishing between heat and temperature.

Nearly all text books which deal with heat offer different explanations of the term. For example, they say ‘heat is energy’, ‘heat is a form of energy’, ‘heat comes from sun’, ‘heat is internal energy’, etc.

These well-meaning but varied, imprecise and non-scientific explanations tend to create confusion.

SCIENCE:

  • Students will engage in a combination of classroom learning and flipped-classroom style homework.
  • The learning process will 'start with a misconception', as inspired by Dr Derek Muller's PhD and Veritasium Youtube channel.
  • Students will be work in teams to construct practical experiments to demonstrate heat concepts and show what they know and have learned.
  • Students will identify how heat flows via contact and non-contact forces.
  • Students will describe and discuss how energy is transferred within a system
  • Students will explain and discuss heat conductors & insulators in terms of categories of materials.
  • Students will use instruments to measure and clarify properties of materials


LITERACY:

  • Make a labelled journal diagram to represent how heat flows between objects (include at least one example of both a pictoral and a schematic
  • Make a presentation to communicate their understanding of a heat concept
  • Reflect on their learning. Create a journal entry to describe 'what I used to think versus what I think now'.


EXAMPLE DESIGN + ASSESSMENT TASK:

  • Each group will build a model showing convection currents using components supplied by the teacher.
  • There will be prizes for the most effective experimental design by a student group (judged by peers)


CONCEPTS:

  • The students will first be engaged in discussion by a facilitator/scientist whose task is to work with and assist the classroom teacher. The discussions and tasks are designed to be performed in the framework of Scientific Method, and to help all students understand what heat is, the difference between heat and temperature, and how heat moved from one object to another.

Each discussion starts with one or more misconception(s) about heat:

Some example questions based on common misconceptions:

  1. What is the difference between 'hot' and 'cold'?
  2. Is there a difference between heat and temperature?
  3. Why do hot drinks cool down?
  4. Does the temperature of something depend on size (a small/large ice block)?
  5. Are some materials warmer or colder than others?
  6. How does heat move from one object to another?
  7. How safe is heat?

Students will be asked to explain their current thoughts about how many different types of energy can be converted into heat energy. For example, energy conversion via:

  • Light (electromagnetic energy)
  • Electricity (electromagnetic energy)
  • Mechanical energy
  • Chemical energy
  • Nuclear energy
  • Sound energy

Following these discussions, students are challenged by hands-on activities designed to allow them to discover answers that will assist them overcome common, a-priori misconceptions about heat and temperature.

PRACTICAL WORK

The on-line THE HEAT QUIZ should be completed on commencement of the course and may be completed one or more times for pre and post-test use.

The teacher/facilitator will explain that students will work together in groups to create, carry out, document and discuss a number of practical experiments.

Students may use supplementary on-line resources to experiment with heat concepts using inter-active simulations

It is extremely important that students come up with their own solutions and answers.

Teacher(s)/facilitator(s) MUST NOT provide prescriptive explanations, strategies or answers during practical activities. Students are encouraged to work collaboratively to come up with their own theories and solutions.

Students must be given continuous opportunities/reminders to compare 'what I used to think' with 'what I think now'


EXAMPLE MISCONCEPTION-BASED ACTIVITY - HOW WE SENSE HOT AND COLD

  • IF UNABLE TO ACCESS YOUTUBE, TRY:Viewpure


TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION

Sensing Temperature

When something feels hot to you, the molecules in that something are moving very fast. When something feels cool to you, the molecules in that object aren’t moving quite so fast. Believe it or not, your body perceives how fast molecules are moving by how hot or cold something feels.

Your body has a variety of ways (senses) to detect energy.

  • Your eyes perceive certain frequencies of electromagnetic waves as light.
  • Your ears perceive certain frequencies of longitudinal waves as sound.
  • Your skin, mouth and tongue can perceive thermal energy as hot or cold.

What a magnificent energy sensing instrument you are!

Conduction, Convection, Radiation - How Heat Travels

See how heat can travel via conduction, convection, radiation

  • Identify ways heat is produced and that heat moves from one object to another ST2-6PW
  • Describe everyday interactions between objects that result from contact and non-contact forces ST2-7PW
  • How can heat move from one object to another. (ACSSU049)
    • observe the effects of heat moving from one object to another, eg the feeling when hands are placed in warm or cold water
  • How many ways can heat be produced
    • Identify some different ways in which heat is produced in the classroom, eg by electricity, burning (chemical) and friction (motion)
  • Describe how people use scientific knowledge in their work and everyday life to control the movement of heat from one object to another, eg a pot holder, insulated bags or thermos CCT

For an explicit, detailed explanation of heat and temperature, visit The Physics Classroom - 1)


HEAT VERSUS TEMPERATURE

HINTS

  • Temperature is the degree of hotness (average quality of hotness of all molecules )
  • Heat is energy in transit (measured in joules). Heat transfer will always alter the temperature of an object. Heat is the total quantity of hotness (total amount of hotness for all of the molecules)

Video 1. Bill Nye - Heat (2min)


Still a bit confused about the difference between heat and temperature?

Imagine that you are standing by a highway , measuring the speed of passing vehicles. The average speed (average amount of movement) of all of the vehicles would be like temperature the average amount that all of the molecules are moving. If all of the vehicles were to crash into a concrete wall at the end of the freeway, then the total amount of energy transferred from the trucks into the wall as a result of all of those collisions would be more like the amount of heat. For more (scientific) detail, see Heat - The Physics Classroom

In thermodynamics, heat is a type of energy transfer in which energy flows from a warmer substance or object to a colder one. It can be defined as the total amount of transferred energy excluding any macroscopic work that was done and any transfer of part of the object itself. 2)


Video 1. Eureka - Heat Versus Temperature


How heat can travel from one place to another in three main ways.

Video 1. Heat - Conduction, Convection & Radiation

  • IF YOUTUBE FAILS, TRY VIEWPURE:Viewpure


Video: Veritasium - Misconceptions About Temperature (4min)

  • IF UNABLE TO ACCESS YOUTUBE VIDEO, TRY:Viewpure


LINKS TO RELATED QUESTIONS, ANSWERS & RESOURCES:

The on-line HEAT QUIZ should be completed on commencement of the course and may be completed one or more times for pre and post-test use.

  • When the HEAT QUIZ has been completed, students are sent results by email.
  • In the email, there is a link for more information, activities and experiments to help the student understand more about each question and the answer.
  • Students are encouraged to investigate, ask questions and design their own experiments.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=327&v=HnqbQVPKldk

Video: Bill Nye -Heat video for a rainy afternoon (22min)

  • IF UNABLE TO ACCESS YOUTUBE VIDEO, TRY:Viewpure


ADVANCED

REFERENCES

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2018/heat/home.txt · Last modified: 25/06/2019/ 19:46 (external edit)